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日期:2021-03-03 10:17

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND APPLIED SCIENCES

DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

ICSI213/IECE213 Data Structures

Click here for the project discussion recording.

Table of Contents

Part I: General project information ……………………………………………………………………………………… 02

Part II: Project grading rubric……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 03

Part III: Examples on how to complete a project from start to finish …………………………………… 04

Part IV: A. How to test a software design? …………………………………………………………………………….06

B. Project description ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 07

2

Part I: General Project Information

? All projects are individual projects unless it is notified otherwise.

? All projects must be submitted via Blackboard. No late projects or e-mail submissions or hard copies

will be accepted.

? Two submission attempts will be allowed on Blackboard. Only the last attempt will be graded.

? Work will be rejected with no credit if

? The project is late.

? The project is not submitted properly (wrong files, not in required format, etc.). For example,

o The submitted file can’t be opened.

o The submitted work is empty or wrong work.

o Other issues.

? The project is a copy or partial copy of others' work (such as work from another person or the

Internet).

? Students must turn in their original work. Any cheating violation will be reported to the college.

Students can help others by sharing ideas, but not by allowing others to copy their work.

? Documents to be submitted as a zipped file:

o UML class diagram(s) – created with Violet UML or StarUML

o Java source file(s) with Javadoc style inline comments

o Supporting files if any (For example, files containing all testing data.)

? Students are required to submit a design, all error-free source files with Javadoc style inline comments,

and supporting files. Lack of any of the required items will result in a really low credit or no credit.

? Your TA will grade, and then post the feedback and the grade on Blackboard if you have submitted it

properly and on time. If you have any questions regarding the feedback or the grade, please reach out

to the TA first. You may also contact the instructor for this matter.

3

Part II: Project grading rubric

Components Max points

UML Design (See an example in part II.) Max. 10 points

Javadoc Inline comments (See an example in part II.) Max. 10 points

The rest of the project Max. 40 points

All projects will be evaluated based upon the following software development activities.

Analysis:

? Does the software meet the exact specification / customer requirements?

? Does the software solve the exact problem?

Design:

? Is the design efficient?

Code:

? Are there errors?

? Are code conventions followed?

? Does the software use the minimum computer resource (computer memory and processing

time)?

? Is the software reusable?

? Are comments completely written in Javadoc format?

a. Class Javadoc comments must be included before a class header.

b. Method Javadoc comments must be included before a method header.

c. More inline comments (in either single line format or block format) must be included

inside each method body.

d. All comments must be completed in correct format such as tags, indentation etc.

Debug/Testing:

? Are there bugs in the software?

Documentation:

? Complete all documents that are required.

4

Part III: Examples on complete a project from start to finish

To complete a project, the following steps of a software development cycle should be followed. These steps

are not pure linear but overlapped.

Analysis-design-code-test/debug-documentation.

1) Read project description to understand all specifications(Analysis).

2) Create a design (an algorithm for method or a UML class diagram for a class) (Design)

3) Create Java programs that are translations of the design. (Code/Implementation)

4) Test and debug, and (test/debug)

5) Complete all required documentation. (Documentation)

The following shows a sample design. The corresponding source codes with inline Javadoc comments are

included on next page. How to test/debug a software is included on the following pages.

5

import java.util.Random;

/**

* Representing a dog with a name.

* @author Qi Wang

* @version 1.0

*/

public class Dog{

/**

* The name of this dog

*/

private String name;

/**

* Constructs a newly created Dog object that represents a dog with an empty name.

*/

public Dog(){

this("");

}

/**

* Constructs a newly created Dog object with a name.

* @param name The name of this dog

*/

public Dog(String name){

this.name = name;

}

/**

* Returns the name of this dog.

* @return The name of this dog

*/

public String getName(){

return this.name;

}

/**

* Changes the name of this dog.

* @param name The name of this dog

*/

public void setName(String name){

this.name = name;

}

/**

* Returns a string representation of this dog. The returned string contains the type of

* this dog and the name of this dog.

* @return A string representation of this dog

*/

public String toString(){

return this.getClass().getSimpleName() + ": " + this.name;

}

/**

* Indicates if this dog is "equal to" some other object. If the other object is a dog,

* this dog is equal to the other dog if they have the same names. If the other object is

* not a dog, this dog is not equal to the other object.

* @param obj A reference to some other object

* @return A boolean value specifying if this dog is equal to some other object

*/

public boolean equals(Object obj){

//The specific object isn’t a dog.

if(!(obj instanceof Dog)){

return false;

}

TAB

TAB

TAB

open {

open {

TAB

Class comments must be written in Javadoc format before

the class header. A description of the class, author

information and version information are required.

More inline comments can be included in

single line or block comments format in a

method.

Comments for fields are required.

Method comments must be written in Javadoc format

before the method header. the first word must be a

capitalized verb in the third person. Use punctuation

marks properly.

A description of the method, comments on

parameters if any, and comments on the return type

if any are required.

A Javadoc comment for a formal parameter consists of

three parts:

- parameter tag,

- a name of the formal parameter in the design ,

(The name must be consistent in the comments and the

header.)

- and a phrase explaining what this parameter specifies.

A Javadoc comment for return type consists of two parts:

- return tag,

- and a phrase explaining what this returned value specifies

6

//The specific object is a dog.

Dog other = (Dog)obj;

return this.name.equalsIgnoreCase(other.name);

}

}

Part IV:

A. How to test a software design?

There can be many classes in a software design.

1. First, create a UML class diagram containing the designs of all classes and the class relationships (For example,

is-a, dependency or aggregation).

2. Next, test each class separately.

Convert each class in the diagram into a Java program. When implementing each class, a driver is needed to test

each method included in the class design. In the driver program,

i. Use the constructors to create instances of the class(If a class is abstract, the members of the class will

be tested in its subclasses.). For example, the following creates Dog objects.

Create a default Dog object.

Dog firstDog = new Dog();

Create a Dog object with a specific name.

Die secondDog = new Dog(“Sky”);

ii. Use object references to invoke the instance methods. If an instance method is a value-returning

method, call this method where the returned value can be used. For example, method getName can

be called to return a copy of firstDog’s name.

String firstDogName;

firstDogName = firstDog.getName();

You may print the value stored in firstDogName to verify.

iii. If a method is a void method, invoke the method that simply performs a task. Use other method to

verify the method had performed the task properly. For example, setName is a void method and

changes the name of this dog. After this statement, the secondDog’s name is changed to “Blue”.

secondDog.setName(“Blue”);

getName can be used to verify that setName had performed the task.

iv. Repeat until all methods are tested.

? And then, test the entire design by creating a driver program and a helper class of the driver program.

i. Create a helper class. In the helper class, minimum three static methods should be included.

public class Helper{

//method 1

public static void start(){

This void method is decomposed.

It creates an empty list.

It calls the create method to add a list of objects to the list.

And then, it calls the display method to display the list of objects.

}

//method 2

public static returnTypeOrVoid create(parameters if any) {

This method creates a list of objects using data stored in text files.

}

7

//method 3

public static returnTypeOrVoid display(parameters if any) {

This method displays a list of objects.

}

}

ii. Create a driver program. In main of the driver program, call method start to start the entire testing

process.

public class Driver{

public static void main(String[] args){

Helper.start();

}

}

Notice that the driver and its helper class are for testing purpose only. They should not be included in the design

diagram.

B. Project description

Project 1 Abstract Data Type(ADT) Bag

An ADT Bag is composed of a list of grocery items and a set of operations on the list. You may think of a grocery bag

as an instance of the ADT Bag. A grocery bag contains a list of groceries. There is a set of operations that operate on the

list. For example, we can add an item, remove an item, count the number of items, check for a specific item, etc. In this

project, you will design an ADT bag by following software development cycle including specification, design,

implementation, test/debug, and documentation.

Specification/Analysis:

The ADT Bag must contain the following operations:

? create an empty bag that can hold up to 100 items

? add an item to the end of the list of this bag- insert(item)

? remove the item at the end of this bag - removeLast()

? remove an item at a random index from this bag - removeRandom()

? get the index of the first occurrence of an item from this bag - get(a reference to an item)

? get a reference to an item at position index of this bag(get(index)),

? check how many items are there in this bag - size()

? check to see if this bag is empty - isEmpty()

? empty this bag - makeEmpty()

Design:

Complete a UML diagram to include all classes that are needed to meet the specifications. An interface class needs

to be defined to specify the design of each operation. In the interface, what each operation does is specified. A class

implementing this interface needs to be defined to specify how each operation does and a data structure is selected to

store a collection of data.

Exceptions should to be considered when operations are designed. Java has two types of exceptions: checked

exceptions and runtime exceptions.

8

Checked exceptions are instances of classes that are sub classes of java.lang.Exception class. They must be handled

locally or explicitly thrown from the method. They are typically used when the method encounters a serious problem. In

some cases, the error may be considered serious enough that the program should be terminated.

Runtime exceptions occur when the error is not considered as serious. These types of exceptions can often be

prevented by fail-safe programming. For example, it is fairly easy to avoid allowing an array index to go out of range, a

situation that causes the runtime exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException to be thrown. Runtime exceptions are

instances of classes that are subclasses of the java.lang.RuntimeException class. RuntimeException is a subclass of

java.lang.Exception that relaxes the requirement forcing the exception to be either handled or explicitly thrown by the

method.

In general, some operations of an ADT list/ADT Bag can be provided with an index value. If the index value is out of

range, an exception should be thrown. Therefore, a subclass of IndexOutOfBoundException needs to be defined.

Also, an exception is needed when the list/bag storing the items becomes full. A subclass of

java.lang.RuntimeException should be defined for this erroneous situation. A full ADT bag should throw an exception

when a new item is inserted. Similarly, an empty ADT Bag should throw an exception when removing an item from it.

Code/Implementation:

A class implementing the interface needs to be written to specify how each operation does and a data structure is

selected to store a collection of data. An array must be used to store all items in an ADT Bag. The element type of the

array should be Object type – the ultimate superclass of all other classes. When organizing items in the array, all items

must be stored consecutively. This means shifting may be needed after some insertion or removal operations.

Javadoc comments need be written during this activity. Class comments must be included right above the

corresponding class header. Method comments must be included right above the corresponding method header.

Comments are also needed in each method to document each block of statements.

Debug/Testing:

Note: It is required to store all testing data in a file. It is required to use decomposition design technique.

To test the ADT bag design, all operations must be tested. In general, an empty ADT Bag is created, and then, fill the

bag, display the list and test other operations. It is not efficient to write everything in main. Method main should be

small and the only method in a driver program. A helper class should be created to assist the driver. In the Helper class,

minimum three static methods should be included. Method start creates an empty bag and is decomposed/calls other

methods such as create and display. Method create should add items into the bag. Method display should display the

items in the bag. More methods can be added to test other operations. Method main should call start from the driver

program to start the entire testing process.

Test the entire design by creating a driver program and a helper class of the driver program.

? Create a helper class. In the helper class, minimum three static methods should be included.

public class Helper{

//method 1

public static void start(){

This void method is decomposed.

It creates an empty bag.

It calls create with a reference to the empty bag.

create adds a list of items into the bag.

It calls display with a reference to the bag.

display displays the list of items in the bag.

}

9

//method 2

public static returnTypeOrVoid create(A reference to a bag){

Using data stored in text files to make items.

Add the items into the bag.

Note: In this case, you may add String objects to an ADT Bag that can store items of Object type.

}

//method 3

public static returnTypeOrVoid display(A reference to a bag){

Displays the list of items in the bag.

}

}

? Create a driver program. In main of the driver program, call method start to start the entire testing process.

public class Driver{

public static void main(String[] args){

Helper.start();

}

}

The sample testing file may contain items like this:

Apple

Pear

Orange

Milk

Bread

Documentation:

Complete all other documents needed.


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